Holism

Philosophical Forum Natural Philosophy

One characteristic aspect within substantial holism of Stoicism and Epicureanism is the idea of human beings, and other animals, as psychophysical wholes. Another aspect is psychological holism, of which there are two dementions. One is that psychological capacities are seen as closely intergrated with each other, and as functions of a coherent whole, rather than as expressions of radically distinct parts and of what is or is not the core or essence of the person. Another is that psychological capacities are seen functions of a unified psychological whole and not as being mental by contrast with psysical. In other words, in these theories, psychological holism is combined with psychophysical holism. These types of holism are also linked with one the type of naturalism with focus on the natural (birth-to-death) life of human beings as embodied rational animals, rather than, for instanse, as temporarily embodied non-material souls. 

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