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Like in Stoicism, Epicurean psychology points to the conception of emotions and desires as primariry believe-based on cognitive reflections unifying the picture of human psychology. In regard to the synthesis of psychological and psychophysical holism, the Epicurean analysis of action envisages a role both for mind as a source of action and for images (eidõla, simulacra), defined as psychological pleasure.
Substantial holism seen as a charactiristic of Stoicism and Epicureanism is considered according to the idea of human beings, and other animals, as psycho-physical wholes. The two dimentions in psychological holism involves psychological capacities, closely integreted with one other combined as a whole in one unity. In the model the psychological holism is combined with the psychophysical whole and considered as a unified whole. This naturalistic holism links to the life of a human being (birth to death) as an embodied rational animal. (1.74)
The two stages of the Stoic model for personal development provide a powerful expression of holism, one that embraces ethical and psychological dimentions has far-reaching implications for understanding the coherence and impact of Stoic philosophy. Stoic thinking about human psychology and personal development is considered a strong ground for seeing the Stoic approach as correlating a unified picture of human (and other animal) psychology with psychophysical holism. (1.78)
1. Christopher Gill “The Structered Self in Hellenistic and Roman thought”, Oxford University Press N.Y, 2006